Persistent Depressive Disorder: Types, Causes, and Treatments

Depression is a common and serious mental health condition that affects millions of people worldwide. However, when it comes to persistent depression, those feelings of being down and feeling lonely will not go away, but this is treatable by identifying the symptoms and availing for assistance from a psychotherapist.

Let’s dive deep into this chronic disorder, investigating its types, causes predisposing it, and management issues associated with its lifelong impact on the patient.

Persistent Depressive Disorder

PDD is another name for a type of persistent depressive disorder or dysthymia that manifests continuously over long periods, usually lasting for not less than two years, with some episodes in between.

People with PDD experience a low or sad mood most of the time, along with other symptoms such as:

  • Loss of interest or lack of satisfaction in daily activities.
  • Fatigue or low-energy
  • Negative feelings towards oneself, like low self-esteem and self-confidence.
  • Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
  • Poor appetite or overeating
  • Insomnia or hypersomnia
  • Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism
  • Irritability or anger

Persistent depressive disorder may impair an individual’s social relations, health, work, or even general well-being. It could further lead to MDD and other serious psychiatric illnesses as well if not treated at the right time.

Types of Persistent Depressive Disorder

PDD can be classified into two types based on the age of onset:

  • Early-onset PDD: The first kind precedes 21 years of age, mostly due to hereditary or biological reasons.
  • Late-onset PDD: Secondly, this form comes up after the age of 21, and it has a greater probability of being caused by traumatic life events, for example, trauma, loss, and sickness. This can also be affected by the person’s personality, and these factors may include neuroticism and perfectionism.
  • Typical features: It includes
  1. Changes in mood reactions
  2. Weight gain
  3. Increased appetite and sleep
  4. Feeling heaviness in limbs
  5. Sensitivity to interpersonal rejection that results in significant social or occupational impairment.

Causes of Persistent Depressive Disorder

There are different causes of PDD. However, medical researchers are still investigating its precise causes. Some of the possible causes are:

  • Genetics: Certain genes affecting neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine can also lead to PDD, which may run in families. It controls mood, drive, and rewards through these chemicals.
  • Hormones: Hormonal imbalances like thyroid deficiency, low cortisol, or estrogen could cause PDD. Such hormones are involved in controlling metabolism, energy, mood, and stress.
  • Inflammation: Chronic inflammation has been seen as a potential cause for PDD, which involves prolonged activation of the immune system, causing harm to both the brain and body. These include infections, autoimmune disorders, obesity, smoking, and poor diet.
  • Personality: Personality traits like introversion, neuroticism, pessimism, and perfection might affect PDD. Some of these characteristics may make an individual susceptible to stress, unfavorable feelings, poor self‐esteem, etc.
  • Life events: Some specific and notable factors that cause PDD include abusive relationships, loss of a loved one, loss of employment, medical conditions, and various other stressful happenings in people’s lives. Such experiences may have feelings of sadness, sorrow, anger, or guilt, disturbing their ways of adapting and supporting.

If you are looking for a better place to treat your depression, then GS Mental Health & Wellness in Manhattan, New York, is the best place.

Benefits of Visiting a Psychotherapist for Depression

Depression is one of the common reasons why you may consider visiting a psychotherapist to improve both your mental and emotional health state.

Some of the benefits are:

  • This will teach you how to deal with stress and negative emotions in a positive manner.
  • You will have an alternative look at your issues and challenges and also identify some remedies to those issues and challenges.
  • Therefore, you enhance your communicative capacity and your relations with other people.
  • Boosting your self-esteem, self-worth, and loneliness can hence be done.
  • This will help you feel better, improve your mood, energy, and productivity, and make you live better.

If you would like to try psychotherapy for getting rid of your depression, then using websites and e-resources can provide you with additional helpful information.

Talk to your physician or mental health expert at GS Mental Health & Wellness in New York about the most suitable kind and method of psychotherapy that will suit you. Remember, you’re not alone; there is a chance of getting better.

Treatments for Persistent Depressive Disorder

Some of the common treatments are:

1. Psychotherapy:

Talking or psychotherapy is a method where one engages in a conversation on his thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, among others, with a trained and certified mental health psychotherapist or care worker.

Psychotherapy can help one understand the causes and patterns of PDD, cope with stress and negative emotions, change unhelpful beliefs and behaviors, and enhance one’s self-esteem and relationships.

There are different types of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), and interpersonal therapy (IPT).

Each type has its own goals and techniques, and the best one for each patient may vary. Psychotherapy can be done individually, in a group, or with a partner or family member.

Individuals seeking psychotherapy can book individual therapy sessions (both virtual and in-person) at GS Mental Health & Wellness in New York.

2. Medication:

The primary form of medicine that is prescribed as a treatment for PDD is antidepressants. This is done by enhancing their concentration on the said chemicals, including serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.

There are certain pros and cons of taking medication, and what is good or bad depends on every individual patient. Treatment usually includes antidepressants. It may also require lifelong treatment as PDD could reoccur in the future.

Psychotherapy treatment sessions will still come in handy for individuals who are not able to recover and feel better despite their being taken medications.

3. Lifestyle changes:

Lifestyle changes are important adjuncts to medication and psychotherapy. They can help improve one’s physical and mental health and reduce the risk factors and triggers of PDD.

Some of the lifestyle changes that can help with PDD are:

  • Exercise
  • Diet
  • Sleep
  • Social support
  • Stress management

FAQs for Depression

Some of the common treatments are:

Q1: What do I need to know about supporting someone who is depressed?

Such support should include being empathetic, listening without placing judgments on them, and advising them to seek assistance from a psychotherapist. You could also educate yourself more about the condition.

Q2: Can depression affect physical health?

There are some physical problems that one can experience when they get depressed, which includes sleeping disorders, changes in food consumption, and increases in heart-related complications.

Q3: Is depression a lifelong condition?

Some people will only go through repeat cycles, while others can conquer depression after proper treatment and assistance. Better outcomes depend on early intervention and consulting a psychotherapist at the early stages.

Q4: Is occasional sadness and depression the same thing?

No, depression is not just feeling sad. These include a recurrent pattern of uncontrollable anger that interferes with everyday life and it is commonly referred to as “anger rage” and might persist for weeks, months, years, even decades.

Book a Therapy Sessions Now

People with depressive disorders (PDD) present a chronic manifestation of depression, which can occur in any age group. This may cause significant distress in the life of a person and make them more susceptible to other mental disorders.

You can consider getting long-term treatment by taking different psychotherapy sessions for depression at GS Mental Health & Wellness in New York, as the therapist will assist you in overpowering the manifestations of PDD and enhance the quality of your life and its recurrence. There’s still hope, and you are not alone here.

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